Research Paper On Diabetes
Diabetes is a long term disease (often, a lifelong one) caused by low production of insulin or the improper response of the body to this substance. The direct consequence of this metabolic health issue is high blood glucose, which means the affected persons have a bigger quantity of sugar in blood than normal.
Unfortunately, the number of people suffering from diabetes is quite high. A study effectuated in 2013 has shown that 382 million persons over the world were affected by this disease. The typical symptoms that should indicate someone may have diabetes are polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (they are always thirsty) and polyphagia (constant hunger).
There are two types of diabetes – type 1 and type 2.
In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin at all. However, this is less encountered, as only about 10% out of all diabetes cases are of type 1. Patients suffering from this illness are compelled to take insulin for the rest of their lives (administered as daily injections). Additionally, they must constantly check the blood glucose levels and follow a strict alimentary diet.
The most common type of diabetes is type 2. In this case, the body does produce insulin, but not much enough as to support a proper function of the metabolism process. Another possibility is that even if the quantity of insulin is normal, the body cells do not respond to this substance (the body is immune to insulin). This illness is a progressive one and it is caused by unhealthy life styles, especially by obesity. Patients will have to take insulin in tablet form, monitor their sugar blood level and go for healthier habits.
Another type of this illness is called gestational diabetes. It affects pregnant women who may end up having such a high blood sugar level, that the body just cannot keep it under control. Fortunately, only percents of 10 to 20 of cases need medication. The rest of women can put up with this temporary affection by proper exercise and diet.
The most common symptoms of type 1 diabetes are lethargy, numbness, weight loss, hyper-ventilation, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Also, patients’ breath smells like acetone. Besides the already symptoms mentioned in the introduction, type 2 diabetes manifests though blurred vision, too.
There are three tests that physicians use in order to establish diabetes diagnosis: the A1C test (or the HbA1c, for checking the hemoglobin), the FPG test (fasting plasma glucose) and the OGTT test (oral glucose tolerance).
Untreated diabetes has severe consequences that affect all body functions and parts. Here are several affections that can be seen in patients: heart issues (ischemic heart disease and hypertension), eye complications (glaucoma, cataracts), gastro paresis, hearing loss, often infections, slow healing of wounds, mental disorders (depression, anxiety), foot complications (neuropathy, ulcers, and sometimes gangrene) and kidney disease.
In order to prevent diabetes, it is essential to have a healthy life style. This means balancing work with rest, exercising, keeping a normal body weight and eating low cholesterol food.
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